9- 7. KNOTS
a. Square Knot. This joins two ropes of equal diameter (Figure 9-5): Two interlocking bites, running ends exit on same side of standing portion of rope. Each tail is secured with an overhand knot on the standing end. When you dress the knot, leave at least a 4 inch tail on the working end.
Figure 9-5. SQUARE KNOT
b. Round Turn with Two Half Hitches. This is a constant tension anchor knot (Figure 9-6). The rope forms a complete turn around the anchor point (thus the name “round turn”), with both ropes parallel and touching, but not crossing. Both half hitches are tightly dressed against the round turn, with the locking bar on top. When you dress the knot, leave at least a 4 inch tail on the working end.
Figure 9-6. ROUND TURN WITH TWO HALF HITCHES
c. End–of–the–Rope Clove Hitch. This is an intermediate anchor knot (Figure 9-7) that requires constant tension. Make two turns around the anchor (1). A locking bar runs diagonally from one side to the other. Leave no more than one rope width between turns of rope (2). Locking bar is
opposite direction of pull. When you dress the knot, leave at least a 4-inch tail on the working end.
Figure 9-7. END–OF–THE–ROPE CLOVE HITCH
d. Middle–of–the–Rope Clove Hitch. This knot (Figure 9-8) secures the middle of a rope to an anchor. The knot forms two turns around the anchor (1, 2). A locking bar runs diagonally from one side to the other. Leave no more than one rope width between turns (3). Ensure the locking bar is
opposite the direction of pull.
Figure 9-8. MIDDLE–OF–THE–ROPE CLOVE HITCH
e. Rappel Seat. The rappel seat (Figure 9-9) is a rope harness used in rappelling and climbing. It can be tied for use with the left or right hand (1). Leg straps do not cross, and are centered on buttocks and tight (2). Leg straps form locking half hitches on rope around waist. Square knot properly
tied on right hip (3) and finished with two overhand knots. Tails must be even, within 6 inches (4). Carabiner properly inserted around all ropes with opening gate opening up and away (5). Carabiner will not come in contact with square knot or overhand knot. Rappel seat is tight enough not to allow a fist to be inserted between the rappeller’s body and the harness.
Figure 9-9. RAPPEL SEAT
f. Double Figure 8. Use a Figure 8 loop knot (Figure 9-10) to form a fixed loop in the end of the rope. It can be tied at the end of the rope or anywhere along the length of the rope. Figure 8 loop knots are formed by two ropes parallel to each other in the shape of a Figure 8, no twists are in the Figure
8. Fixed loops are large enough to insert a carabiner. When you dress the knot, leave at least a 4 inch tail on the working end.
Figure 9-10. DOUBLE FIGURE 8 LOOP KNOT
g. Rerouted Figure 8 Knot. This anchor knot also attaches a climber to a climbing rope. Form a Figure 8 in the rope, and pass the working end around an anchor. Reroute the end back through to form a double Figure 8 (Figure 9-11). Tie the knot with no twists. When you dress the knot, leave at least a 4 inch tail on the working end.
Figure 9-11. REROUTED FIGURE 8 KNOT
h. Figure 8 Slip Knot. The Figure 8 slip is used to form an adjustable bight in the middle of a rope. Knot is in the shape of a Figure 8. Both ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the Figure 8. The bight is adjustable by means of a sliding section (Figure 9-12).
Figure 9-12. FIGURE 8 SLIP KNOT
i. End–of–the–Rope Prusik. This knot (Figure 9-13) attaches a movable rope to a fixed rope. The knot has two round turns, with a locking bar perpendicular to the standing end of the rope. Tie a bow line within 6 inches of the locking bar. When you dress the knot, leave at least a 4 inch tail on the working end.
Figure 9-13. END–OF–THE–ROPE PRUSIK
j. Middle–of–the–Rope Prusik. The Middle–of–the–Rope Prusik (Figure 9-14) attaches a movable rope to a fixed rope anywhere along the length of the fixed rope. To make this knot, make two round turns with a locking bar perpendicular to the standing end. Ensure the wraps do not cross and that
the overhand knot is within 6 inches from the horizontal locking bar. Ensure the knot does not move freely on the fixed rope.
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